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PLoS One. 2016 Sep 19;11(9):e0161211. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161211. eCollection 2016.

Mothers Secretor Status Affects Development of Childrens Microbiota Composition and Function: A Pilot Study.

Smith-Brown P1, Morrison M2, Krause L2, Davies PS1.

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

One mechanism by which early life environment may influence long term health is through modulation of the gut microbiota. It is widely accepted that the optimal source of nutrition in early life is breast milk, with Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) thought to play an important role in nourishing the developing microbiota. However, mothers with inactive secretor genes have altered HMO composition and quantities in their breast milk. In this pilot study we examine the influence of secretor status and breast-feeding on microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age.

METHODS:

37 children and 17 eligible mothers were recruited. Secretor status was determined from blood and saliva samples using hemagglutination inhibition technique and faecal microbiota composition was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS:

Secretor status was determined for 28 eligible children with 20 being secretors (S, 71.4%). Eleven of the 17 mothers were secretors (S, 64.7%). Unweighted UniFrac distances were significantly associated with child secretor status (R2 = 0.069, p = 0.030) and with mother secretor status in children exclusively breastfed for at least 4 months (R2 = 0.167, p = 0.028), suggesting an influence on the presence/absence of microbes, with Prevotella not detected in samples from secretor children and children of secretor mothers. In children who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 4 months of life the abundance of the known HMO consumers Bifidobacterium were increased in the children of secretor mothers compared to non-secretor mothers. The relative abundance of an OTU related to Bacteroides plebeius, a bacterium noted for its capacity to utilise sulphated polysaccharides for growth, was decreased in these children.

CONCLUSIONS:

Child and mothers' secretor status have an impact on childrens' microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age.

PMID: 27644050 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161211

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22.

J Basic Microbiol. 2016 Sep 19. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201600222. [Epub ahead of print]

Insight into the effects of different cropping systems on soil bacterial community and tobacco bacterial wilt rate.

Niu J1,2, Chao J3,4, Xiao Y1,2, Chen W3, Zhang C3, Liu X1,2, Rang Z3, Yin H5,6, Dai L7.

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Abstract

Rotation is an effective strategy to control crop disease and improve plant health. However, the effects of crop rotation on soil bacterial community composition and structure, and crop health remain unclear. In this study, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we explored the soil bacterial communities under four different cropping systems, continuous tobacco cropping (control group), tobacco-maize rotation, tobacco-lily rotation, and tobacco-turnip rotation. Results of detrended correspondence analysis and dissimilarity tests showed that soil bacterial community composition and structure changed significantly among the four groups, such that Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were more abundant in the maize rotation group (16.6 and 11.5%, respectively) than in the control (8.5 and 7.1%, respectively). Compared with the control group (57.78%), maize and lily were effective rotation crops in controlling tobacco bacterial wilt (about 23.54 and 48.67%). On the other hand, tobacco bacterial wilt rate was increased in the turnip rotation (59.62%) relative to the control. Further study revealed that the abundances of several bacterial populations were directly correlated with tobacco bacterial wilt. For example, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were significantly negatively correlated to the tobacco bacterial wilt rate, so they may be probiotic bacteria. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that soil pH and calcium content were key factors in determining soil bacterial communities. In conclusion, our study revealed the composition and structure of bacterial communities under four different cropping systems and may unveil molecular mechanisms for the interactions between soil microorganisms and crop health.

© 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

KEYWORDS:

16S rRNA gene sequencing; Crop rotation; Soil bacterial communities; Tobacco bacterial wilt rate

PMID: 27643917 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201600222

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23.

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 19;11(9):e0162803. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162803. eCollection 2016.

Taxa of the Nasal Microbiome Are Associated with Influenza-Specific IgA Response to Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine.

Salk HM1, Simon WL1, Lambert ND1, Kennedy RB1, Grill DE2, Kabat BF2, Poland GA1.

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Abstract

Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has demonstrated varying levels of efficacy against seasonal influenza; however, LAIV may be used as a tool to measure interactions between the human microbiome and a live, replicating virus. To increase our knowledge of this interaction, we measured changes to the nasal microbiome in subjects who received LAIV to determine if associations between influenza-specific IgA production and the nasal microbiome exist after immunization with a live virus vaccine. The anterior nares of 47 healthy subjects were swabbed pre- (Day 0) and post- (Days 7 and 28) LAIV administration, and nasal washes were conducted on Days 0 and 28. We performed next-generation sequencing on amplified 16s rRNA genes and measured mucosal influenza-specific IgA titers via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A significant increase in alpha diversity was identified (Observed, CHAO, and ACE) between Days 7 vs 0 (p-values = 0.017, 0.005, 0.005, respectively) and between Days 28 vs 0 (p-values = 0.054, 0.030, 0.050, respectively). Several significant associations between the presence of different microbial species, including Lactobacillus helveticus, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus infantis, Veillonella dispar, and Bacteroides ovatus, and influenza-specific H1 and H3 IgA antibody response were demonstrated. These data suggest that LAIV alters the nasal microbiome, allowing several less-abundant OTUs to establish a community niche. Additionally, specific alterations in the nasal microbiome are significantly associated with variations in influenza-specific IgA antibody production and could be clinically relevant.

PMID: 27643883 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162803

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24.

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 19;11(9):e0163178. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163178. eCollection 2016.

Effects of Elevated Tropospheric Ozone Concentration on the Bacterial Community in the Phyllosphere and Rhizoplane of Rice.

Ueda Y1, Frindte K2, Knief C2, Ashrafuzzaman M1, Frei M1.

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Abstract

Microbes constitute a vital part of the plant holobiont. They establish plant-microbe or microbe-microbe associations, forming a unique microbiota with each plant species and under different environmental conditions. These microbial communities have to adapt to diverse environmental conditions, such as geographical location, climate conditions and soil types, and are subjected to changes in their surrounding environment. Elevated ozone concentration is one of the most important aspects of global change, but its effect on microbial communities living on plant surfaces has barely been investigated. In the current study, we aimed at elucidating the potential effect of elevated ozone concentrations on the phyllosphere (aerial part of the plant) and rhizoplane (surface of the root) microbiota by adopting next-generation 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. A standard japonica rice cultivar Nipponbare and an ozone-tolerant breeding line L81 (Nipponbare background) were pre-grown in a greenhouse for 10 weeks and then exposed to ozone at 85 ppb for 7 h daily for 30 days in open top chambers. Microbial cells were collected from the phyllosphere and rhizoplane separately. The treatment or different genotypes did not affect various diversity indices. On the other hand, the relative abundance of some bacterial taxa were significantly affected in the rhizoplane community of ozone-treated plants. A significant effect of ozone was detected by homogeneity of molecular variance analysis in the phyllosphere, meaning that the community from ozone-treated phyllosphere samples was more variable than those from control plants. In addition, a weak treatment effect was observed by clustering samples based on the Yue and Clayton and weighted UniFrac distance matrices among samples. We therefore conclude that the elevated ozone concentrations affected the bacterial community structure of the phyllosphere and the rhizosplane as a whole, even though this effect was rather weak and did not lead to changes of the function of the communities.

PMID: 27643794 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163178

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